I am writing an essay in German about a book that I have read. I want to write that it was written by Niccolo Ammaniti. It is called I am not afraid. I am confused as to what form to use. Should I write:

Es ist von Niccolo Ammaniti geschrieben worden.


Es ist von Niccolo Ammaniti geschrieben wurden.

And a little insight as to the difference of the two will be very much appreciated. Also, what form of sein should be used: ist or war?

  • A is correct and B is wrong. – Gerhard Mar 5 '16 at 0:27
  • I have read that worden is used when the action happened in the past and is likely to happen again. Since the book was written by him once in the past, shouldn't i use wurden? – user20212 Mar 5 '16 at 0:31

geschrieben worden is the passive you are looking for.

wurden isn't a passive form but the first and third person plural active in the past tense of werden (wir wurden, sie wurden).

  • Thanks. One more thing, what form of sein to use: ist or war? – user20212 Mar 5 '16 at 0:35
  • You should apply about the same rules to present perfect and past perfect as in English. Since you are focusing on the fact that the book was written by this author, use the present perfect (i.e. ist geschrieben worden). The past perfect is less common in standard language and only used when you want to express that something happened before something else that is expressed in the past tense. – Janek Bevendorff Mar 5 '16 at 0:38

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