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I've always been a bit confused about the difference between Mir geht's ... and Ich bin ...

I would appreciate it if someone could explain the difference, because they look quite similar.

For example, is Ich bin gut the same as Mir geht's gut?

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In that situation you wouldn't say "Ich bin gut". "Mir geht's gut" or "Mir geht's schlecht" are the appropriate answers.

"Ich bin ..." is being used when you make statements concerning (e.g.) your appearance or state, like "Ich bin stark" (I am strong) or "Ich bin müde" (I am tired).

"Mir geht's gut/nicht so gut/schlecht" can more accurately be translated to "I'm doing fine (etc.)"

Saying "Ich bin gut" is a mistake made very frequently by native English speakers, as it translates word-by-word from "I am fine" - but in that case the translation is incorrect (although every German speaker will understand exactly what you're trying to say).

As a side note, make sure you don't capitalize "Gut": Adjectives are never capitalized. (Although, to make matters worse, there is also a noun "Gut" meaning "goods".)

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