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What I know is that, when there are more than two vowels , we put "-es" but in "Arzt" we put -"es", but what about "Zahnarzt" oder "Tierarzt"? We'll put "-es"? Or is there some other logic behind this ?

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    There is no simple rule, it depends on the word. In your example, however, Zahnarzt and Tierarzt derive from Arzt and use the genitive form of their parent - des Zahnarztes. Feminine and plural words do not change from nominative to genitive ( like der Ärztin or der Ärzte). For others, both variants with s or es are possible (s likely is a shortening). And then there are irregular genitives.. – Chieron Apr 28 '16 at 13:36
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First recommendation: look into the dictionary, see this question. In many cases pronounciation already gives a hint: trying to pronounce "Arzts" without getting a knot in ones tongue gives an indication, why the e is useful here.

In composite substantives the composition has the same genitive ending.

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