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Strategie bezieht sich auf die spezifischen Aktionen, Verhaltensweisen, Schritte oder Techniken, die von Studenten verwendet, um ihr eigenes Lernen zu fördern.

I didn’t use werden in sentence above, but I’m not sure if I had to use it or not there. Could somenone please me clear up?

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Essentially in that clause the "werden" is missing. "verwendet" is the passive form and needs the additional "werden" to make the sentence complete.

You could rephrase the sentence to convert it to the active form, then you could omit "werden":

Schritte oder Techniken, die Studenten verwenden, um ihr eigenes Lernen zu fördern

This would be correct as well.

If you want to keep the passive form but omit the "werden" as well, then you could change the sentence to be a subordinate clause instead. That way you don't need a verb:

Schritte oder Techniken, von Studenten verwendet, um ihr eigenes Lernen zu fördern.

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    I do not think that your second option works here. – Carsten S Jun 8 '16 at 17:31
  • I would consider it as possible, yet it lifts the emphasis into von Studenten verwendet. Not really sure if it is what is called "Präpositionslgruppe" (siehe hier) But You might also consider writing it like; Strategie bezieht sich auf die von Studenten verwendeten spezifischen Aktionen, Verhaltensweisen, Schritte oder Techniken, um ihr eigenes Lernen zu fördern. – Mark Lösche Dec 9 '19 at 9:38
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Yes, werden is required for the passive voice in German. It cannot be left out save in very few cases for advanced stylistic or poetic reasons. Check out Vorgangspassiv on Canoo.net.

Especially in your sentence, leaving out werden creates an allusion towards a participle form as a replacement for a subordinate clause. That is not what you intended, since it would shift the meaning. The problem disappears when adding werden.

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