About this sentence:
Der Motor des Autos hat viel zu wenig Öl. Infolgedessen ist er kaputt gegangen.
Why it is er not es?
As I know er means he in English. So, es should be used as it in English.
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Whilst German and English grammars share many features, you face now something which is radically different: gender. Motor, in your example, is masculine. Therefore the pronoun should be also masculine, er (alternatively der). German does not quite obey English-pronoun rules regarding whether you treat an object or a person.