How to read "from first of April to thirtieth of April" in German?
Is it "von dem ersten April bis der dreißigsten April"?
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Your suggestion is quite close, there’s only minor errors that make it weird.
You probably would contract „von dem“ to „vom“ as well as „zu dem“ to „zum“, and also spell „dreißig“ with an sharp S, and you wouldn’t say „bis der“. Not only because it isn’t correct, but also because it’s far too cumbersome. You’d simply say:
vom ersten bis zum dreißigsten April
You certainly won’t hear anyone uttering its non-contracted form:
von dem ersten bis zu dem dreißigsten April
Sometimes it is recommended to set numbers greater than twelve as figures instead of numerals („zehn, elf, zwölf, 13, 14“). You may do so here, or just set all dates in figures, because they’re dates:
vom 1. bis zum 30. April
vom ersten April
Why using the contraction vom instead of von dem?
Because von dem would mean from that particular. If a contracted form exists (like vom, im, zur) you must use it unless you want to emphasize the noun. This is a separate grammar topic.
[Cannot find an article about this to link, can someone please help?]
bis zum dreißigsten April (note the ß, not z is in your example - it's a common mistake)
Same here, you use the preposition bis zu, which goes with Dative, so it gets bis zum.
Someone may ask, why are we using the male form? Especially English native speakers may have trouble understanding, why we say vom and not von or von der. The answer is simple, we implicitly mean der Tag.
From X to Y, in respect to date and time, is translated into German as von X bis (zu) Y. Examples: "Von April bis Juni", "Von morgens bis abends"
If, as in your case, there's an article, we use contractions: vom and zum instead of von dem and zu dem, respectively. So, your phrase is
Vom 1. April bis zum 30. April
Vom Januar bis zum April
Vom Morgen bis zum Abend