Both are translated as "feel", or in their noun forms as "feeling". Is there any difference in meaning or usage or anything else?
"fühlen" can mean sensing something physically:
Ich fühle wie etwas Warmes mich berührt.
I feel how something warm is touching me.
And "fühlen" can describe an emotional state.
Ich fühle Trauer.
I feel grief.
"empfinden" shares the latter meaning with "fühlen" and actually describes a state of mind.
Ich empfinde Trauer.
I feel grief.
In addition, "empfinden" can be used to express an opinion.
Ich empfinde das als unfair.
To me, that's unfair.
"empfinden" is always rather formal. More common alternatives to the latter sentence are
Ich finde das unfair.
I think that's unfair.
Das ist unfair!
To feel or "fühlen" is same in German as in English.
"empfinden" and "Empfindung" is related to "Feelings". You can feel and think about it as example you could say (psychologically):
- Ich empfinde als es beschämend was er macht.
- I think it's shameful what he is doing.
"Gefühl" and "fühlen" can mean:
You feel something on your skin or you feel sad (physically or psychologically). This isn't possible with "empfinden/Empfindung"
Empfinden" and "die Empfindung" relate to psychological feelings (happy, sad, etc).
So can "fühlen"and "das Gefühl". But these can also relate to physical feelings (hot, cold), which the words in the previous paragraph cannot.
When "fuhlen" is used in the sense of "empfinden," one uses the reflexive form, sich fuhlen.