Ich habe gerade dieses neue Wort "umwandeln" gelernt.
Stoff A wird im Körper zu Stoff B umgewandelt.
kann man anstatt "umwandeln" "ändern" verwenden?
Stoff A wird sich im Körper zu Stoff B geändert.
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In the context you have given, "umwandeln" can not be replaced by "ändern". "Umwandeln" can best be translated with "to convert", "sich ändern" with "to alter" or "to vary", depending on context.
Note that the correct use of "ändern" is with "sich" only as long as the subject actively changes itself, though. So, the sentence
Stoff A wird im Körper zu Stoff B geändert.
Substance A gets altered to substance B inside of the body.
Which plainly doesn't describe the process accurately.
I think the difference is that ändern describes a small, gradual change of sth, while umwandeln is reserved for substantial changes, such as from one substance to another, or changing one form of energy into another.
You use ändern for instance when referring to the change of spatial structure of protein molecules (Konformationsänderung).