I know the words "Blattkohl" and "Grünkohl", but I don't know how to associate with these English words for plants. I know "kale", "collards", and "cabbage" but I don't how they translate to German. Especially confused about kale vs. collard greens.
"Kohl" (Brassica) is a plant species with further subspecies like "Gemüsekohl" (Brassica oleracea) and Rübsen (Brassica rapa). The subspecies themself include different types of plants.
Types of "Gemüsekohl" are (I selected all types that are common on German menus):
Blumenkohl = cauliflower
Romanesco = romanesco
Weißkohl = (white) cabbage, green cabbage
Spitzkohl = pointed cabbage
Rotkohl = red cabbage
Wirsing = savoy (cabbage)
Rosenkohl = brussels sprouts
Kohlrabi = kohlrabi, turnip cabbage
Broccoli = broccoli
Grünkohl = kale or leaf cabagge
Blattkohl/Staudenkohl (= collards) is also a type of Gemüsekohl, but as far as I know and according to wikipedia, it is not cultivated in Germany.
Types of "Rübsen" are (I selected all types that are common on German menus):
- Herbstrübe (Mairübe) = no english name
- Chinakohl = napa cabbage
In the south of Germany people often say "Kraut" instead of "Kohl", e.g., Rotkraut or Blaukraut (= both means red cabbage), Kraut (= white cabbage)
"Cabbage" is just "Kohl" in German. Absent other context, it can also be referred to as "Weißkohl" (white cabbage). Here are some other variations formed by compound words:
Cauliflower, Blumenkohl (literally flower cabbage).
Brussels sprouts, Rosenkohl (literally rose cabbage).
Collard greens, Blattkohl (literally leaf cabbage).
Kale, Grünkohl (literally green cabbage).