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This question already has an answer here:

I can't decide whether Arbeitgeber should follow the profession rule (e.g., Ich bin Student) or not.

marked as duplicate by Jan, Iris, peterh, user unknown, Robert Dec 20 '16 at 22:33

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I'd say there's a subtle difference between the two.

Ich bin Arbeitgeber.

This referes to the role of the person and simply states the fact that the person is an employer.

Ich bin ein Arbeitgeber.

I would not use this term alone. I'd expect additional attributes that provide information about that special employer. For examples:

Ich bin nur ein Arbeitgeber.
I'm just an employer.

Ich bin ein Arbeitgeber, der ...
I'm the kind of employer, who ...

Ich bin ein Arbeitgeber unter vielen.
I'm just one employer among others.

That said, I think that both terms are a bit off. I don't think you'd usually say that. Normally you'd say something like

Ich leite einen Betrieb mit einigen Angestellten.
Ich habe einige Angestellte.
Meine Firma ist der größte Arbeitgeber in der Gegend.

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Both are probably ok but I am leaning towards: "Ich bin ein Arbeitgeber". Arbeitgeber is not a profession but can be used to describe a person. This would be similar to saying: Ich bin Linkshänder. I am left handed. Because Arbeitgeber is rather vague and gives no indication as to what line of work you are in the sentence : "Ich bin Arbeitgeber" sounds slightly off, as if there is something missing. My feeling is that leaving the article off should be reserved for things which are definite and clear. "Verbraucher" {consumer} is a similarly vague term and I feel that "Ich bin ein Verbraucher" is definitely better.
I can't seem to find a clear grammatical rule in black and white.

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