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Recently, I came across this German quote online:

Nicht die Schönheit bestimmt, wen wir lieben, sondern die Liebe bestimmt, wen wir schön finden.

I also found another version which excluded bestimmt in the clause with 'sondern', i.e.

Nicht die Schönheit bestimmt, wen wir lieben, sondern die Liebe, wen wir schön finden.

May I ask if the use of sondern allows for the omission of the verb bestimmt, which would also mean that bestimmt is implied as a follow-up from the first clause because of sondern?

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That has nothing to do with sondern specifically. You could put any conjunction there, and it would be valid. For example:

Nicht die Schönheit bestimmt, wen wir lieben, aber die Liebe, wen wir schön finden.

This is called an ellipse and is quite common in many languages. As long as you can deduce which word is missing, you can omit the word.

There are a handful of conditions that have to be fulfilled, though. It's impossible to give you a full list of these conditions, because it highly depends on the context. Your example certainly requests a conjunction. Without a conjunction it doesn't really work.

*Nicht die Schönheit bestimmt, wen wir lieben. Die Liebe, wen wir schön finden.

But I don't want you to believe that conjunctions are necessary in general. If you follow the link above, you'll see a lot of examples that don't have a conjunction at all.
In your example, the conjunction just has an important role to connect the two clauses and is, therefore, indispendsable.

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    I think one sufficient condition is that repeated words ("bestimmt"), at least verbs, can be always omitted. – dirkt Dec 24 '16 at 9:02

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