Laut einer Statistik sind drei Viertel aller Deutschen mindestens einmal im Jahr krank zur Arbeit gegangen worden.
No, this would imply that someone else "walked you" - which does not work in German, as "gehen" is intransitive.
"sind gegangen" is fully sufficient.
Side note: you could potentially use this sentence ironically to express that someone forced you to go to work while being ill. This is grammatically still not correct, but occasionally deliberately used this way. As a non-native speaker I would refrain from trying this, though, until you are really confident in the finer connotations of German grammar.