A literal English translation (calque) of the Russian phrase "He прошло и года" is "
not less than a year".
A literal Russian translation (calque) of the English phrase "Not even a year has gone by!" is "Даже года не прошло!".
A literal Russian to German translation of the given English phrase " Not even a year has gone by! is then "Nicht einmal ein Jahr ist vergangen!. Or perhaps "...hatte vergangt!" [??]
Note that in Russian grammar multiple punctuation marks at the end of a sentence (e.g., "?!!") in written works can be used for the reader to understand that the sentence (so marked) should be interpreted as being questioning (with eyebrows raised), ironical (said with a smirk or knowing glance or look), or some other related emotion (e.g., a snort, guffaw, or something similar). As far as I know this use of punctuation marks is common in overly expressive written English, but is not normal or the usual case in either the English or the German language.
Also note that in this question there is a misunderstanding of the English expression, that is, i.e., that it concerns an event or events that should have happened earlier (in the past), whereas the statement in good English is actually targeting an event or events that properly should still be yet to happen (i.e., in the future), not yet, but relatively soon. I suspect that the Russian and the German versions are much alike in that regard.