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What is the correct capitalization for

"Das abstellen von Fahrrädern im Treppenhaus ist verboten!"

or similar sentences? I often read that sentence on signs and wondered if it shouldn't be "Abstellen" due to the article in front of it. What am I missing?

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In the case of "Das Abstellen", "Abstellen" is a noun. According to the rules of the so-called "Substantivierung", it has to be written in upper-case.

Hence, you're not missing anything - the guy that put up the sign screwed up, and you're the one who's right :)

See also http://www.duden.de/sprachwissen/sprachratgeber/substantivierter-infinitiv

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    Usually those who design, produce, and sell signs like that are neither masters of German philology nor trained typesetters (a dying vocation anyway). There are a number of spelling mistakes frequently met e.g. in marquees. Pay attention to the (ab)use of apostrophes in plural and genitive forms. – Christian Geiselmann Sep 4 '17 at 9:36

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