Not quite: There are two variants of the word in German.
This can be a planned or an unplanned encounter, although it is rather the latter.
For the described meaning of "to meet someone", you would usually add "zum ersten Mal", as in "jemanden zum ersten Mal treffen" (and again, this can be planned or unplanned). Alternatively, you could use "jemanden kennenlernen".
The word "jemandem begegnen" is more or less a synonym, leaning even stronger towards the unplanned encounter.
sich mit jemandem treffen
This has the exclusive meaning of being planned. It underlines that the meeting is something that all involved actively participate in.
The figurative meaning from the English expression "to be met with something" is not present in German. Instead, the word "reagieren" could be used:
The announcement was met with criticism by the audience.
Das Publikum reagierte mit Kritik auf die Ankündigung.
Some impersonal forms ("... rief kritische Reaktionen hervor", "... wurde kritisch aufgenommen", ...) are possible, as well.
And lastly, while German uses the anglicism "das Meeting" for a business meeting (as a synonym of "die Besprechung", and maybe also some other kinds of work-related meetings depending on context), the above variants of "treffen" are also used as a verb in that context (beside compound forms like "ein Meeting haben").