I'm trying to understand a particular use of the word doch
If somebody says es ist meine Schuld, meaning "it's my fault", may I use doch in response to convey, essentially, "no, on the contrary, it's not your fault"?
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Let me try to give you an idea on how to use "doch" in that particular context with a short story:
- Anna: Peter, du hast doch nicht etwa den Tee verschüttet, oder? - Peter, it wasn't you who spilled the tea, was it?
- Peter: Doch, es ist meine Schuld. - Yes, is is my fault.
- Anna: Gabi, mach das doch bitte sauber! - Gabi, would you please clean this up.
- Peter: Warum Gabi? Es war doch meine Schuld! - Why Gabi? It was me who's fault it was.
- Anna: Gabi stellte doch den Tee dort hin. - But it was Gabi who put the tea there.
- Peter: Also ist es doch nicht meine Schuld. - But then it is not really my fault.
- Anna: Du hättest besser acht geben sollen. - You should have watched out more.
- Peter: Ist es also doch meine Schuld. - So it is my fault then.
- Anna: Ja, doch ich verzeihe dir. - Yes, but I forgive you.
- Gabi: Soll ich nun putzen? - Do I have to clean up now?
- Anna: Aber nein, es ist doch nicht Deine Schuld, Peter hat es getan. - No you don't have to, it is not your fault at all. Peter did it.
You can see that depending on context doch is used in different meanings that can not be translated 1:1. It gets further comlicated because the meanig of a sentence may change with emphasis (see 4., 6., 8.). Example 11. may come close to what you asked.
No, this is not possible. Doch can only be used as a response to negative statements. For example, if someone says
Es ist nicht meine Schuld.
then you can answer
to express that you think it is their fault (although they deny). I believe there's no short translation for this doch to English.
If someone says
Es ist meine Schuld.
then it doesn't make sense to simply answer with Doch, but you could very well say
Das stimmt doch gar nicht.
"Es ist meine Schuld" is a complete sentence, means It's my fault
it's not your fault would be:
"Es ist nicht deine Schuld."
If you see somebody is punished for something you did, you may say (directing the sentence to the punisher):
"Es ist doch meine Schuld"
Or you could use it to console somebody (Don't worry, it's my fault). But it needs the statement, somebody else is taken the blame or feels responsible for your fault.