3

I have heard both structures (intended, I believe, to express: "to take something in consideration"). Do they mean the exact same thing? Are both used equally often?

2

In general these two expressions mean the same. There is just a slight difference in common usage when talking about possibilities:

In Betracht ziehen adresses the possibility of an action.

Man sollte in Betracht ziehen, dass man die Firma auflösen kann.
One should consider that it is possible to close the company.

Man sollte die Möglichkeit in Betracht ziehen, die Firma aufzulösen.
One should consider the possibility of closing the company.

In Erwägung ziehen is usually followed by the action itself:

Man sollte in Erwägung ziehen, die Firma aufzulösen.
One should consider to close the company.

The remaining case

Man sollte in Erwägung ziehen, dass man die Firma auflösen kann.

is not correct.

When talking about arguments, in Betracht ziehen is also more common.

So to conclude this: If you stick to in Betracht ziehen, you are on the safe side. But the differentiation of the two gives you the possibility to express more detailed.

I didn't find any exact rules on the usage, so I hope my examples explain my point.

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