Hallo, ich bin Peter.
wrong: Haben Sie eine minute fur mich?
correct: Haben Sie eine Minute für mich?
In German all nouns need to be capitalized: wrong: minute. correct: Minute
The dots on umlauts are not optional, they are mandatory: wrong: fur. correct: für
If you can't type umlauts, type an e after the vowel (ue instead of ü) because the dots on the vowels developed over the centuries from an e after this vowels.
wrong: fur. acceptable: fuer. correct: für
wrong: Ich bin Deutsch lernen.
correct: Ich lerne Deutsch.
German has nothing like progressive form (ing-form). So something like »ich bin lernen« simply is wrong in German. Both "I learn" and "I am learning" translate to »ich lerne« in German.
wrong: Kann ich bitte Sie ein paar Fragen?
correct: Kann ich Sie bitte etwas fragen?
or: Kann ich Ihnen bitte ein paar Fragen stellen?
Both forms are good style and polite.
- Fragen = questions (a noun in plural form)
- fragen = to ask (a verb in its infinite form)
Remember the rule about nouns I mentioned above: Always write nouns with an uppercase first letter. This rule only applies to nouns, not to verbs! (Well, also the first word of a sentence needs to be capitalized, no matter what kind it is.)
So, the sentence you wrote contains no verb, which means: It isn't a sentence. An English equivalent might be:
Can I you some question please?
So you need a verb, and "to ask" is »fragen« in German, which gives:
Kann ich Sie bitte etwas fragen?
Please, can I ask you something?
But in German there is a very common phrase. In English, the noun question is very different from the verb to ask, while in German they are equal, except from upper/lowercase writing of the first letter. So a direct translation would be:
to ask a question
eine Frage fragen
This is grammatically correct, but very bad style. Never use the verb fragen together with the noun Fragen in the same sentence. Use this phrase instead:
to ask a question
eine Frage stellen
(verbatime translation: to put/place a question)