As the title says, what is the right way to say "one of the most important (any noun)"?
Algorithm, one of the most important topics of informatics.
Is ein related to topics or is it related to algorithm?
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For you specific example "eines der wichtigsten" is correct.
However you can't generalize it the way you did in your first question with the added any noun, because it always depends on the specific noun. See the following examples:
der Mann (masculine) -> einer der wichtigsten Männer
die Frau (feminine) -> eine der wichtigsten Frauen
das Kind (neuter) -> eines der wichtigsten Kinder