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I know that both mean "the trust" but I have never heard yet "treuhand" in a conversation or in books

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    If you have difficulties finding the appropriate German term for an English expression consider to consult another dictionary. Look at the entry e.g. in dict.cc: using Treuhand as a translation for trust is reserved for its use as a technical law term - so it is of little surprise you don't hear it in everyday conversations. – Takkat Feb 7 '18 at 21:44
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While "Vertrauen" means "trust" in the sense of "I put my trust in you", "Treuhand" is a rather specific term for certain judicial and/or financial constructs. You might want to look it up in Wikipedia:

Treuhand
Trust

After the German reunification, an agency named "Treuhandanstalt", often abbreviated as "Treuhand", was set up to manage the state property of the former German Democratic Republic. If someone talks about "die Treuhand" without further explanations, they most probably refer to the

Treuhandanstalt

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    And it is a politically loaded topic. Many germans, from both former parts, think the Treuhandanstalt did a wasteful, disrespectful, and/or corrupt job. So using that word for anything has a big risk of drawing you into an political discussion. – rackandboneman Feb 7 '18 at 21:47
  • Even if it is a judicial construct its function and meaning is derived from "trauen". Maybe you can refine your answer a bit. – Thomas Feb 9 '18 at 16:40
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Vertrauen means "trust" in the sense of the feeling thereof.

"Treuhand" refers to a financial arrangement involving an intermediary, such as a bank, as a "trustee." The arrangement itself, is a "trust."

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