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Could anyone explain me, how should I understand the expression "einen Pflock einschlagen"? Of course, I mean something more then just hammering the peg. Like in this sentence:

Österreichs neuer Kanzler Sebastian Kurz schlug in Brüssel schon gleich einen Pflock ein: "Die EU muss schlanker werden".

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    "Dropping an anchor" maybe. – πάντα ῥεῖ Feb 24 '18 at 0:18
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    I’d translate it almost literally as „he staked a claim“. – Rudy Velthuis Feb 25 '18 at 15:37
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I would say that „einen Pflock einschlagen“, which indeed means driving a stake in the ground, here simply means „leave a mark“, in the sense of „staking a claim“ or „leaving an impression“.

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Österreichs neuer Kanzler Sebastian Kurz schlug in Brüssel schon gleich einen Pflock ein: "Die EU muss schlanker werden".

That Pflock above is a stake, meant for marking the outline of a building on a construction site. Austria's new chancellor had driven his stake into the ground, marking his future EU as a smaller building than the old one.

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When you claim a piece of land, you need to hammer pegs into the ground to mark your territory. Later you can use those pegs to build a fence around your land.

When Sebastian Kurz hammered his peg into the ground, he set a mark. He was claiming something. He claims that the European Union must get slimmer.

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DE

»schlug einen Pflock ein« drückt aus, dass der Autor Kurz' Aussage als nachdrückliche, unverrückbare Forderung versteht. So, als hätte Kurz hinzugefügt: »Ohne das geht es nicht.«

EN

»schlug einen Pflock ein« expresses that the author takes Kurz' statement as insistent, unalterable demand. As if Kurz would have added: »Ohne das geht es nicht.« (»There's no way without it.«)

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