I'm not sure if something like that exists specifically for learners. (I have some doubts, though. Quite frankly, this strikes me as an almost masochistic learning strategy: You would study extremely similar German lexems with widely differing meanings. Normally, this is the exact type of scenario that learners - me included - try to avoid when studying a foreign language.)
That being said, one book that does come to my mind is the (somewhat but not overly technical) Helbig/Schenkel, Wörterbuch zur Valenz und Distribution deutscher Verben, 7th ed. 1983. This is a dictionary of around 500 common verbs with their valence patterns. The entries do not always (though mostly) include definitions, but they all include simple example sentences/phrases. The dictionary is grouped by word families (e.g. arbeiten is followed by bearbeiten, einarbeiten, überarbeiten, verarbeiten), which, if I'm understanding you correctly, is what you're looking for.
(It appears that there is a preview available through Google Books, at https://books.google.de/books?id=KHgqcUKjgkoC&printsec=frontcover&hl=de.)
P.S.: You could also use cannoo.net's wildcard search feature and just enter some verbs you are interested in. A search for "*bauen" returns this remarkable list of entries, for example.