conjunctions are categorized as "Temporal" or "Instrumental" or "Conditional" or many other ones , what is the category for "dass"?


That depends. Usually, when you see dass, it just introduces a complement clause (Komplementsatz):

Er hat Angst, dass sie ihn verlässt.

Having lost much of its semantic value, it doesn't really fall into either of your categories. However, occasionally, this standard use is referred to as "neutral" (e.g. by Duden-Grammatik, if I remember correctly; LingTermNet).

Particularly in older writings, other functions of dass can be observed. An example with final dass would be:

Ich gab der Magd einen Groschen, daß sie die Schweine woanders einstecke. (Kleist)

It can be consecutive (rare):

Er schlug auf den Tisch, dass die Fenster klirrten.

And it can be causal (rare):

Er hat offenbar die Leute nicht getroffen, daß er schon wieder zurück ist. (Wieland, via HDK-2,1)

Further reading:

  • The causal use is indeed rare, but not so much dated. May depend on regional preferences. – Janka Aug 29 '18 at 7:15
  • Yeah, probably. Also on the precise definition of causal (which for some people would include uses that I would tend to label consecutive). I'll remove it. – johnl Aug 29 '18 at 7:21

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