5

I came across this link and I'm copying it out to spare your effort:

vorbei (over) considers the passed time:

Die Ferien sind vorbei.

\

fertig (done / finished) focuses on the state:

Ich bin fertig mit der Arbeit.

And I'm not quite sure where the phrase 'aus sein' fits in.

3

The phrase »etwas ist aus« can mean:

  1. something is over

    Der Film ist aus.
    The movie is over.

  2. something is off

    Der Motor ist aus.
    The engine is off.

  3. something is used up.

    Die Butter ist aus.
    The butter is used up

In meaning 1 of aus sein is a synonym to vorbei sein, so it is used for passed time.

Meaning 3 is not used in the whole German sprachraum. You will hear it in the southern regions (Austria, Bavaria)

  • 2
    The third meaning is used in the north, too. Though Die Butter ist alle. is more common. – Janka Nov 25 '18 at 22:39
  • 1
    Where I lived (Saxony, Thuringia, Berlin) the third meaning is used especially in restaurants, when some dish from the menu cannot be delivered any more, since they ran short of some core ingredient. Kassler ist heute aus. – jonathan.scholbach Nov 26 '18 at 9:46
  • no. 3 is used in Hamburg as well. And in Swabian it could be der Butter :) – Philipp Nov 26 '18 at 9:47
  • 1
    @Philipp und Hubert Schölnast und jonathan.scholbach: Dazu gab's 'ne Befragung der AdA-Truppe mit 3 verschiedenen Test-Sätzen: leer/alle/aus. Meine Erfahrung mit den AdA-Befragungen ist, dass die Antworten relativ normorientiert ausfallen, außerdem sind die gelieferten Karten statistisch, es gibt sehr oft auch Alternativ-Angaben, die in der Regel unter den Tisch fallen. Die Schwelle lag mal bei 35%, d.h. Angaben mit einem Anteil von unter 35% für einen Ort werden nicht referiert. – Ralf Joerres Dec 2 '18 at 22:42
1

One of the meanings aus always had was that something is at its end, or finished. This is an old meaning also found in English

Put out the light, and then put out the light.
If I quench thee, thou flaming minister,
I can again thy former light restore.William Shakespeare, Othello

In German it is in terms like e.g.:

Mach das Licht aus.
Das Spiel ist aus.
Alles ist aus, wir sind verloren.

The closeness in meaning that you asked for is even included in the German figure:

Aus, fertig und vorbei.

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