The basic story of the four grammatical cases might say that nominative is used in subjects and in predicate nominatives, accusative is used for objects of most verbs, some verbs take only dative objects, some take both dative and accusative objects, and there are four sorts of prepositions, some having accusative objects when motion toward something is indicated.
Then there are things like "Ich denke an ihn." versus "Was findest du an ihm gut?". With these, particular locutions must be learned, but maybe they're not just isolated cases but part of some pattern.
And then I came across the following: A sentence in a novel in English says "I'm not used to it." and a translation into German says "Ich bin es nicht gewohnt." I might have guessed that the dative case would be used here. Is this altogether isolated, or is it part of some pattern that would have enabled one to predict that the accusative would be used? If it's an isolated thing that must be learned separately from everything else, which other isolated instances exist?