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Ich kann nicht glauben, dass ich mich von Ihnen dazu habe überreden lassen, mich freiwillig zu melden.

I understand the sentence to mean, "I can't believe I let you talk me into volunteering", but I don't really understand what the dazu is doing.

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The dazu is the into of your English sentence.

While in English you

talk someone into something,

in German it is

jemanden zu etwas überreden

in your example, the "zu" is entirely optional, because you could rewrite the sentence to

Ich habe mich überreden lassen, mich freiwillig zu melden.

In this specific example, the dazu simply works as an announcement of the infinitive.

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Good question. "dazu" is simply superfluous here, to say the least. "dazu" tends to be one of the words that are frequently misused in this and other ways.

For example:

Ich habe mich zu den Wartenden dazugestellt.

A proper use is as back-reference, like so:

Klaus hat mich überredet, Chinesisch zu lernen. Ich habe mich gern dazu überreden lassen, weil Klaus ein netter Kerl ist.

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