the relative pronoun "die" refers to "Argumente, auch aktuelle Parameter genannt" as a whole. It can equally refer to "Parameter" or "Argumente" as those names are equal. The verb follows closely after the object it refers to. The statement "innerhalb der Methode" only makes sense after the parameters have been passed, so the verb that signals the passing has to appear before hand. The same requirement does not strictly hold for "parameter", if those are deemed exactly equivalent with "Argument". A distinction about that could be drawn theoretically, but that might not the intent of the sentence.
Yet, there's the implicit question, could "übergeben werden" move closer to "Argument"?
Indeed, the sentence is hard to parse, half asleep at least, because I read two enumerations, one of nouns "Argumente, auch Parameter" and "gennant, übergeben werden", which would be an unusual syntax (lacking a conjunction for the comma), and the semantics might not turn out to be meaningful, but my failure early into the sentence might be an indicator that the syntax is too complex. "auch X genannt" is an idiomatic elipsis. It is often rendered as "auch genannt X", perhaps exactly to avoid an erroneous reading. There are several variants to rewrite the sentence, but none commendable. It would be best to simply remove the auch-clause (adjunct or coordinate?).
One could irregularly say,
In einem Aufruf können der aufgerufenen Methode Argumente, übergeben werden, die, auch aktuelle Parameter genannt, innerhalb der Methode als Inhalte formaler Parameter (ähnlich zu Variablen) zugreifbar sind.
Wow, what a trainwreck. Actual parameters are accessible as content of formal parameters. Do they mean pointer-value semantics of machine oriented programming? Yes, that's *&difficult. Anyhow, the sentence might now imply that only after passing the arguments they would be called parameters.