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In general Nominative case is used to denote the subject of the sentence they why in below sentence dative is used

Das Sanskritwort bhagavān wird von der großen Autorität Parāśara Muni, dem Vater Vyāsadevas, wie folgt erklärt

  • That isn't a subject. "Sanskritwort" is the subject. – Kilian Foth Jun 2 '19 at 20:17
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This is a passive construction (wird erklärt). The grammatical subject is “das Sanskritwort bhagavān“. The case of “dem Vater Vyāsadevas” is determined by the preposition “von”.

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Since Parāśara Muni is the father of Vyāsadeva, these two sentences are equivalent:

Das Wort wird von der großen Autorität Parāśara Muni erklärt.
Das Wort wird von dem Vater Vyāsadevas erklärt.

"Von" takes the dative.
The subject of the sentence is "das Sanskritwort bhagavān".

If you were to rephrase the sentence in the active voice, then "Vater" would be nominative:

Die große Autorität Parāśara Muni, der Vater Vyāsadevas, erklärt das Sanskritwort bhagavān wie folgt...

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