1

Why the word "gehört" is at end of the sentence?

Solche Unreinheiten erwartet man niemals von jemandem, der zur zivilisierten Klasse der Menschen, den Āryas, gehört.

  • 1
    Because …, der … gehört. is a dependent, in this case a relative clause. Dependent clauses have their finite verb last in German (apart from exceptions, of course). – Janka Jun 3 at 17:40
  • @Janka I know it's tempting, but please don't answer questions in comments. – Arsak Jun 3 at 18:01
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    I think this question can be easily answered by reading a basic German grammar book and should be closed. – Janka Jun 3 at 18:01
  • Do you understand the sentence? What word order would you have expected? Why? – Carsten S Jun 3 at 18:41
  • @Carsten, the sequence I expect is as we are accustomed to, in English. "..who belongs to the civilised class of men, the Aryas." – Jim Jun 5 at 6:46
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Because the part

..., der zur zivilisierten Klasse der Menschen, den Āryas, gehört.

is a relative clause. It starts with a relative pronoun (der = which).

A very important rule for relative clauses is, that the verbs MUST stand at the end of the relative clause.

A main clause witch is related to this relative clause is:

Der gehört zur zivilisierten Klasse der Menschen, den Āryas.

Here the verb ist at position 2, and at Position 1 you find the subject, which here is no longer a relative pronoun, but a demonstrative pronoun (der = this one).

The word der can appear in both rules, but you will see the difference, when you try to replace it with other pronouns:

Relative clause: ..., welcher zur zivilisierten Klasse der Menschen, den Āryas, gehört.
Main clause: Dieser gehört zur zivilisierten Klasse der Menschen, den Āryas.


Addendum

(reaction to a comment)

There are several types of sentences and several types of verbs:

  1. Statements which are full clauses

    • If there is only one verb in the predicate, and if it is non-separable, it must stand at position 2 and it must be inflected to match with the subject in person and number.

      Werner schreibt Briefe.

    • If the verb is separable, the main part must stand at position 2 and has to be inflected, the prefix has to be split off and has to stand at the end.

      Werner wäscht das Geschirr ab.

    • If you have a full verb and an auxiliary verb, the auxiliary verb must stand at position 2 and must be inflected. The full verb stands at the end and must not be inflected (and it must not be split)

      Werner wird das Geschirr abwaschen.

    • What has been said about auxiliary verbs is true for modal verbs too:

      Werner darf das Geschirr abwaschen.

    • If you have full verb + auxiliary verb + modal verb, then the auxiliary verb has to stand at position 2 (and has to be inflected). At the end you have the full verb, followed by the modal verb (both not inflected)

      Werner wird das Geschirr abwaschen dürfen.

  2. Statements wich are relative clauses (here: a reason for something else)

    • Only a full verb: at the end, not separated, but inflected.

      Er hat keine Zeit, weil Werner das Geschirr abwäscht.

    • Auxiliary verb + full verb: Full verb at the end (not inflected), followed by inflected auxiliary verb

      Er wird keine Zeit haben, weil Werner das Geschirr abwaschen wird.

    • Modal verb + full verb: Same as auxiliary + full

      Er hat keine Zeit, weil Werner das Geschirr abwaschen darf.

    • Modal + auxiliary + full: All three at the end, the order is: full, modal, auxiliary, only the auxiliary verb has to be inflected

      Er wird keine Zeit haben, weil Werner das Geschirr abwaschen dürfen wird.

  3. Closed Questions (to be answered with yes or no)

    • Only a non-separabe full verb: Put it at position 1 and inflect it

      Schreibt Werner einen Brief?

    • A separable verb: But the main part at position 1 and inflect it. The prefix has to stand at the end.

      Wäscht Werner das Geschirr ab?

    • additional auxiliary verb: The auxiliary Verb has to stand at position 1 and has to be inflected, the full verb goes to the end and is not inflected.

      Wird Werner das Geschirr abwaschen?

    • Modal verb behaves like auxiliary verb

      Darf Werner das Geschirr abwaschen?

    • All three kids of verbs: The auxiliary verb stands at position 1 and has to be inflected. At the end you have the full verb followed by the modal verb (both not inflected, and separable verbs are not split)

      Wird Werner das Geschirr abwaschen dürfen?

  • Thank you but how can we explain the trailing position of the verb in below sentence. (Positioning of verpflichtet and annehmen) Bhīṣma und Droṇa waren wegen Duryodhanas finanzieller Hilfe verpflichtet, sich auf seine Seite zu stellen, wenngleich sie eine solche Stellung, nur aufgrund finanzieller Überlegungen, nicht hätten annehmen sollen. – Jim Jun 5 at 7:05
  • @Jim: Both verplichtet and annehmen are participles. In combination with auxiliaries as sein and haben, they are always trailing. You really need a German grammar book. – Janka Jun 7 at 22:51
  • @Janka, I have the Hammer & Smith, do you advise any other book? – Jim Jun 15 at 4:51
  • Hammer's German grammar is a decent book. I don't know what's inside Brian Smith's "Power Reader Super Grammar". Oh, and I was wrong, annehmen is of course an inifinitive in the modal expression with sollen. It doesn't make a difference for the positioning however. – Janka Jun 15 at 8:29

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