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Being completely unfamiliar with the answer, I would dare say that it is a legacy of Latin, although I fail to recognize any similarity between Latin declensions and this sort of noun alteration. Is there any source that explores the history of this interesting phenomenon?

To quote @Fabio Turati and his nice description of what I mean by "n-Deklination":

In German you normally decline articles, adjectives and pronouns, but not nouns. Still, some nouns must be declined: in accusative, genitive and dative you have to add an 'n', and these words are said to belong to the "n-Deklination". They are also called "schwache Nomen" (that is, "weak nouns"). For example, let's take "der Name": you say "Wie ist dein Name?" (nominative), but "Sag mir deinen Namen!" (accusative).

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    This sounds interesting. I wish I knew what the n-Deklination is – Mawg Jun 4 at 15:41
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    @Mawg In German you normally decline articles, adjectives and pronouns, but not nouns. Still, some nouns must be declined: in accusative, genitive and dative you have to add an 'n', and these words are said to belong to the "n-Deklination". They are also called "schwache Nomen" (that is, "weak nouns"). For example, let's take "der Name": you say "Wie ist dein Name?" (nominative), but "Sag mir deinen Namen!" (accusative). – Fabio Turati Jun 4 at 21:48
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    Thank you @Mawg for pointing that out, I thought the nomenclature was universal. I will edit my question to clear things up. – Easymode44 Jun 5 at 7:15
  • I understand it, just was not familiar with the term. – Mawg Jun 5 at 7:38
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The n-Deklination originates from the Indo-European (athematic) n-stems. You may want to take a look at the Wikipedia page about Proto-Indo-European nominals

It does not originate from Latin; rather, both Latin and Germanic inherited n-stems from Indo-European.

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It's a legacy of Proto-Germanis language (and since German is not a descendant of the Latin language, n-Declination cannot be a legacy of Latin). This "n" was a part of a word stem and the n-Form is often the original form of the word. Later, the ending "n" was dropped off in nominative but remained in other cases. (source, in German)

  • Virus and Museum do not have an /n/ in any of its cases in Latin. German cannot "retain" something that never existed. – fdb Jun 5 at 15:43
  • @fdb I removed that part. – Eller Jun 5 at 16:13
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I just opened "Consonant and vowel gradation in the Proto-Germanic n-stems" before reading this question.

[Todo: Read and summarize 100 odd pages, the bulk making lexical entries]

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