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I couldn't figure out the grammar rule here. I know it is possessive pronoun but I don't know the case (it seems nominative here)

Sie kauft die blaue Mütze für ihren Bruder.

Please tell me why it is ihren here?

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Short answer:

für asks for the accusative case, Bruder is singular masculine, so one has to use ihren there, because this is the accusative masculine singular inflection of ihr.

Additional comments:

In general, you should be able to determine the case by searching for the preposition in some dictionary or even on Google.

Actually, knowing the case taken by a preposition is is not complicated at all if you have a good memory (or have practiced enough).

By the way, this wikibook has a decent lesson about prepositions and cases.

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  • I didn't know before für is an akkusative preposition. Hehe. – Bằng Rikimaru Jul 9 '19 at 11:08

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