This is a very pejorative use of imagery already at the Japanese source, it seems. As such it is quite specific to Japanese culture as well. A direct translation or one-word translation or even a very short combination in German seems to not exist.
If one equivalent catches up in German it will probably be a loanword from manga-Japanese?
The fish-part especially seems to give it a twist that together with the list of traits ascribed to it is a bit too unique for a direct fit.
As the Japanese, Chinese and Korean Wikipedia entries – which are the only Wikipedia languages having an entry for this concept – explain: this is a description of women who 'lost love' or
The dried fish woman ( Japanese : dried woman Himono Onna [ * ] ) is a Japanese coined word meaning a woman who abandoned love.
The dry woman comes from a Japanese buzzwords and is used to describe a young woman who is as dry as scallops and mushrooms. It refers to a group of women who can't afford to love and think that many things are very troublesome and only have to be done. This name is derived from the Japanese name for dry fish, and the words that are close to 'funeral' and 'defeated dogs.'
(Machine aided translation, please excuse me, and please improve if you can)
Which I would take to mean that these are relatively young women, disillusioned with the marriage market and societal expectations, especially for private relationships.
There is a very close combination of words in German which expresses a similar concept:
vertrocknete Jungfer (literally 'dried-up maiden') – but this is without context or explanation one standing idiom to refer mainly to somehwat older women, not those in her twenties, and a few other mismatching connotations, among them the pejorative undercurrent.
Jungfer f. today only in psychologically evaluating sense for '(older, unmarried) sensitive, prudish woman'. Mhd. juncvrouwe is shortened to late juncfer (14th century) by concentration of the emphasis on the first compositional element and applies (like Jungfrau (virgin), s. ?jung) to the unmarried lady of knightly rank, soon becomes the name of the unmarried daughter, later the unmarried bourgeois woman (also in the salutation) as well as the sexually untouched girl, cf. deflower, virginity (17th century). An disparaging sense developed alongside this already in the 17th century (young 'prudish, squeamish', old maid). The meaning 'servant, maid' (preserved in Kammerjungfer, 15th century) comes from the custom that young girls come up to noble ladies. Brautjungfer (Bridesmaid) f. 'single friend or relative of the bride as companion in the wedding procession' (18th century).
If you want to express such a concept in ideally few German words, other adjectives than *vertrocknet *might fit better: verzagt, entmutigt, niedergeschlagen?
Just anecdotal data: after reading only the descriptions of 'traits' from the question to 3 native speakers, asking the very question here they all responded "alte Jungfer", with a grimassed face that formed a question mark with wrinkles and raised shoulders. The main difference in responses was to be observed in how long it took them to follow up with "Wasn Quatsch!" and then detailing how strange a few of the Japanese details sounded to them.