The linguistic name of this notion is "Polysemie" or "Mehrdeutigkeit". Polisemy is present in all languages, and in this regard German is not unique at all.
For each meaning, there are words typically used with the base word (in your case, the verb "treffen"=) in this meaning. E.g. if we take the verb abstreifen, it would have 4 meanings, each characterized with a certain set of words accompanying the word in this particular meaning.
In the first meaning, the thing you would typically "abstreifen" would be your backpack, in the third meaning the subject of the action would typically be the police and the object would typically be "premisses" (Gelände), and so on.
One should think of such words as of people sharing a common name (possibly having the same grandfather), but being independent personalities with entirely different lives - albeit sharing something in common. Sometimes words would undergo drastic changes and split into several meanings. For example, "toll" used to mean "rabid", but then in the 20th century it started being increasingly used in the meaning "splendid" or "cool", while still preserving the original meaning, and the more direct extension of the original meaning - something "insane", "mental". https://www.dwds.de/wb/toll