Take a look at the following words:

Gelaufe, Gelerne, Geschufte, Geballer, Geschredder, Geschwätz, Gelaber

There seems to be an construction one could call "pejorative gerund", which nominalizes a verb into something regarded pointless, boring, annoying and/or repititive. Although nouns like

*Geverbarikadiere, *Geharpuniere, *Geprogrammiere

sound at least grammatical in my ears, they also appear to be very awkward. I suppose the construction is generally possible, but practically restricted to a certain subclass of verbs.

Do you how this construct is called in proper linguistical terms, and where I can find more about it? Of course, if you can tell me more about the rules of applicability, it would be interesting, too.

  • Gerund here is a wrong term. A gerund has the form of the infinitive used as a neuter noun: fahren - das Fahren, rauchen - das Rauchen. The term Verbalsubstantiv is also used.
    – rogermue
    Commented Dec 24, 2014 at 18:33
  • @rogermue While being the wrong term technically, it does serve the same grammatical purpose as the "true" Gerund. More important is that this construction is not pejorative per se.
    – GermanNerd
    Commented Dec 7, 2018 at 9:09

4 Answers 4


Takkat has answered the why. I'd answer the second half of the question about the how by noting that your examples all have two or three syllables.

Ge-lauf-e, Ge-lern-e, Ge-schuft-e, Ge-ball-er, Ge-schredd-er, Ge-schwätz, Ge-lab-er

So it comes down to phonetics again. It just does not sound good and is to hard to say if you have more than three syllables. Example Ge-lauf-e you have e- something - e or 1 2 1


Duplication could be used to make it sound funny


Here what you do instead is to say

Rumgeprogrammiere or Herumgeprogrammiere

So the rum or the herum balances the word.

Rum - Ge - Programmier-e 2 1 2 1

where the 1 stands for an e and the 2 for something else.

Schwadronieren --> geschwadroniere

does not work

Schwadronieren --> herum-ge-schwadro-nie-re

works 2 1 2 1 1


The pejorative meaning in your interesting examples may have a different reason as the prefix "Ge-" is by not means pejorative by itself.

It originates etymologically from the Old High German prefix "ga-", or "gi" in the meaning of togetherness or being in a collective.

This can best be seen by the examples given in the Etymologisches Wörterbuch nach Pfeifer:

  • Gefährte, Genosse, Geselle, Gespiele, Gevatter
  • Gebilde, Gebirge, Geflügel, Gerippe, Gestirn, Getier, Gezweig
  • Gebäck, Gedeck, Gedicht, Geflecht, Gestell, Getöse

Hence the prefix "Ge-" is also used to intensify a meaning by putting it into a collective context:

  • Gebrüll, Geflüster, Geschrei, Geschwätz, Gewühl

Similarly it can also be used with verbs and adjectives.

Sometimes a negative connotation may then result from this intensification which can further be increased by adding another prefix "Herum-" (used similarly):

Herumgeirre, Herumgealbere, Herumgeschwätz, …

  • This recalls for me an earlier discussion in which he offered the suffix "icht" as an instance of turning a verb into a noun with unsavory connotations. At that time he was only able to come up with kehricht (sweepings?) as an example. I wonder if anyone can think of others on this pattern? At the time, I had a number of Yiddish examples that seemed to use this form: spittings, shellings, smearings (speiechts, schallechts, schmierechts). Commented Dec 1, 2012 at 16:18

Ending those verbs with -rei is another way to make nouns out of, and I think it feels correct for them:

verbarrikadiererei, harpuniererei, programmiererei


Wortbildungen wie Gebälk, Gebäck, Geschrei fallen unter den Begriff Kollektiva (Sammelbegriffe). http://www.knoefler.cc/tag/kollektiva/

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge you have read our privacy policy.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.