- Ich bin zu Hause.
- Ich gehe nach Hause.
why do we use Hause instead of Haus? It is das Haus, isn't it? In addition, why don't we say
- Ich gehe zum Haus(e).
as the preposition zu binds to dative?
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Nowadays, the word Haus has two distinct broad meanings that in English are captured by the words house and home, respectively.
Haus in the sense of house refers to the building. Here, the dative and the accusative case are typically used without -e in contemporary German.
Haus(e) in the sense of home refers figuratively to the rooms someone is living in. Here, the -e in dative and accusative case is a remnant from the past.
Notice also that the adverb zu Hause can be written as one word: zuhause. Since the Orthogrtaphic Reform 2004/2006 both spellings are equally valid. Nominalizing the adverb results in a noun, Zuhause, that must be capitalized as such:
Sie hat ein neues Zuhause.
(She has a new home.)
The word "Hause" is basically a remnant of the past German dialect. In that old Dialect, which you can read in some older Books like Goethes Iphigenie auf Tauris: "O süße Stimme! Vielwillkommener Ton der Muttersprache in einem fremden Lande!". Today you wouldn't say "Lande", you would simply say "Land". Back then it would be normal to say things like "zu Fuße", instead of "zu Fuß" and "zu Pfred(e)" instead of "mit dem Pferd". Somehow this didn't fully change for "zu Hause". although "zu Haus" is definetly used in normal conversation, I belive its still considered an abbreviation in writing. Dont know though.
As for the dative, "Ich gehe zum Hause" would just sound like the "old german" I described above. With that old dialect, it would not be wrong. Today we would say "Ich gehe zum Haus".