Hello everyone i’m learning about adverbs, they are separated in 4 class(lokal, temporal, modal and kausal) but i couldnt’t find and understand in which class ‘’jedoch’’ belongs

This sentence for example

‘’Du kannst mit ihnen jedoch auch die Folgen von etwas beschreiben.’’

i ask the verb questions: wie, warum, weshalb... but i can’t understand


Jedoch, as an adverb, is a Modaladverb because it indicates the extension of an action. Some examples:

  • Die Sonne schien, es war jedoch kalt.

  • Es war kalt, wir froren jedoch nicht.

In the first sentence, the sun shines less intensely than necessary to make it warm. In the second example, it wasn't as cold to make them freeze. As you can see here, jedoch usually restricts the extent of an action.

The construction jedoch auch from your example, however, is mostly used to restrict the extent of the precedent action, hence allowing for the action in the current sentence to take place:

  • Die Sonne schien, es regnete jedoch auch.

Here, jedoch auch indicates that the shining sun wasn't the only weather condition at that time. It restricts the absoluteness of the preceding action so to speak.

Thus, in

Du kannst mit ihnen jedoch auch die Folgen von etwas beschreiben.

jedoch auch means that you can do more with 'them' (ihnen) than was said before.


Note that the list of adverb classes your book gave you should not be interpreted as exhaustive. As far as the classification of adverbs is semantic, i.e. based on meaning, it is easy to find subclasses: local can be a place (dort), the target of movement (dortin) or the source of movement (dorther); temporal can be a point in time (heute), a frequency (täglich) or a duration (stundenlang); and so on.

Also note that adverbs meaning is only one dimension in which adverbs can be classified. For instance, some of them are deictic, i.e. they refer to the context of the utterance, such as hier, dorthin, jetzt. Others are conjunctive, i.e. they link clauses. This is the category jedoch belongs in.

Erstmals verwendet wurde der Begriff [Hypermedia] 1965 von Ted Nelson. Die Idee vernetzter Medien ist jedoch weitaus älter.

Conjunctive adverbs can be classified according to meaning similar to the way conjunctions are classified. In the sentence above, there is a contrast between the ages of the term hypermedia and the corresponding idea: the former is relatively young, yet the latter is relatively old. In the usual classification of conjunctions according to meaning, this is an adversative meaning, i.e. one expressing a contrast.

So jedoch is a conjunctive adverb with adversative meaning.

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