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I have come across this sentence:

Moorbauern fahren derzeit also besser, wenn sie ihren Boden trockenlegen, EU-Prämien abgreifen und offiziell wertvolle Flächen bewirtschaften. Wenn sie dem Klima schaden.

Is the bolded sentence incomplete, e.g. missing an ending 'so sei es' or something similar? If it's a complete sentence, then what kind of construction is this?

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    The simplest way to understand it is to imagine a comma instead of a full stop separating the two sentences. – David Vogt May 13 at 12:48
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It's up to you if you think it's an error or an ellipsis. In both cases it's an incomplete sentence. Here is a version with a complete sentence:

Moorbauern fahren derzeit also besser, wenn sie ihren Boden trockenlegen, EU-Prämien abgreifen und offiziell wertvolle Flächen bewirtschaften. **Moorbauern fahren derzeit also besser, ** wenn sie dem Klima schaden.

An ellipsis is a stylistic feature, that exists - as I believe - in all languages. To construct an ellipsis you just omit a part of speech that easily can be reconstructed be the reader/listener.

An example of a very well know ellipses is:

  • Good morning
    instead of "I wish you a good morning."
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