For the sentence: "but we almost never argue"
Which translation is better:
"aber wir streiten uns fast nie"
"aber wir streiten uns nie fast"
Is there a rule behind which one should come first ?
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It depends on what you want to say.
Let's pick those sentences apart and use only one adverb:
Wir streiten uns fast (we almost argue )
Wir streiten uns nie (we never argue)
If we use two adverbs in a row, the first adverb describes the second one
fast nie (almost never)
nie fast (never almost, in the sence of that you are never close to arguing, either you don't argue, or you argue full on)
The second version is definitely contrived and rarely appears in real life context.
In conclusion: Yes, the order matters. The first adverb describes the second, not the other way around, so your sentence should read
Wir streiten uns fast nie (we almost never argue)
The fast relates to nie the same way as nearly would refer to never.
Only the sequence fast nie is appropriate for the intended statement. If hard-pressed one could interpret
Wir streiten uns nie fast
could state, that you either argue terribly or not at all, so there is no grey zone, where you nearly argue. (Most likely this would be phrased slightly different, as Wir streiten uns nie nur beinahe.)