In this particular instance, the modal particle schon introduces a contrast to the preceding clause or statement, i.e. the meaning is adversative. I agree that the explanations given by Duden are somewhat lacking. However, the example under 6. can be rewritten to resemble the piece of dialogue you quoted:
A: Von der Tätigkeit her ist die Stelle nicht sehr interessant.
B: Von der Bezahlung her schon!
A: As far as the work itself is concerned, the job isn't very interesting.
B: Yet/though/however/but as far as pay is concerned, it is!
Rewriting the example given in the question:
Grasser kann kein Lösegeld zahlen, Weber schon.
Grasser can't pay ransom, yet/though/however/but Weber can.
The contrast is between Grasser's and Weber's ability to pay ransom.
Of course, schon is originally a temporal adverb. I feel there is a plausible path from the temporal to the adversative meaning. Imagine someone asking a child:
Kannst du schon schreiben, schwimmen, radfahren … ?
Do you already know how to write, swim, ride a bike … ?
Here the meaning is clearly temporal, with schon indicating that an ability that is supposed to develop has been developed already, sooner than expected. The opposite would be noch nicht:
Ich kann schon schreiben, meine Schwester noch nicht.
I already know how to write, my sister doesn't yet.
And here, for me, lies a bridge to the adversative meaning:
A: Könnt ihr zwei schon schreiben?
B: Meine Schwester nicht, ich schon!
A: Do you two already know how to write?
B: My sister doesn't, yet I do.
(I used yet as a translation because it also has this kind of ambiguity between a temporal and an adversative meaning.)