Words like "dass", "da", "weil", "dadurch", "wenn", "falls", "obwohl", "als" and some more are called »unterordnende Konjunktionen« in German which literally translates to "subordinating conjunctions" but the term used in English grammar is just "subjunction".
A subjunction introduces a new class of clauses which are called "subordinate clauses". (In German: »Nebensätze« which literally is "aside clause" or "lateral clause")
In a subordinate Clause the finite verb is at the end of a sentence, while in closes questions and some jokes it stands at position 1 and in main clauses of statements at position 2.
So, indeed, the effect of a subordinating conjunction is just what you described: The finite verb moves from position 2 to the end. But only the finite verb moves. All infinite verbs and all words that aren't verbs stay where they are.
Let's start with the subordinate clause from your example and let's act as if it was a main clause:
English: Doing more work is crazy.
German Version 1: Mehr Arbeit zu machen ist verrückt. (This is the literal translation. It's correct, but stylistic it's not the best version in German.)
German Version 2: Mehr zu arbeiten ist verrückt. (Sounds much better in German. Literall: Working more is crazy.)
What is the finite verb in all these sentences?
In the English sentence the finite verb is: »is« and in the German sentences it is »ist«.
So, turning those main clauses into subordinate clauses will not change the word order of the English sentence, but in the German sentences the finite verb must move to the end:
Eng: Michael says, that doing more work is crazy.
Ger 1: Michael sagt, dass mehr Arbeit zu machen verrückt ist.
Ger 2: Michael sagt, dass mehr zu Arbeiten verrückt ist.
These are correct German sentences.
What did you do wrong?
In your version you also moved the words »zu machen« to the end of the sentence, but these words belong to the subject (not only in German, but also in the English sentence) and so you cut the subject into pieces, which is not allowed in German.
These words together are the subjects of the sentences:
doing more work
mehr Arbeit zu machen
mehr zu arbeiten
The German construction is called »Infinitivgruppe mit zu«. It only can be the subject of a sentence if the verb is a copula (»sein«, »werden«, »bleiben« and sometimes also some other verbs). And this is the case in your example.