Reading "Der Corona Schock" from Hans-Werner Sinn

What is the meaning of "zu" in this sentence on page 81? What is the grammar of "zu" use here? How does omitting "zu" change the meaning?

Kurzum, genau dies ist das nur schwer zu lösende Problem des Euroraums


This is not that different from English, the problem is hard to solve. A complication, for which I could not give you a rule, is that lösende is actually an infinitive in disguise:

Das Problem ist schwer zu lösen.

Es ist ein schwer zu lösendes Problem.

Omitting the zu would, by accident, lead a grammatical sentence, but it would be non-sensical.

Es ist ein schwer lösendes Problem.

It is a hard solving problem.

So the problem would be solving something, hard. Here, lösend would be a present participle.

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