Your assumption, that every noun always goes with only one preposition is wrong. It's wrong in other languages too, including English. I started learning English when I was 10 years old. Now I'm 56 and I am quite satisfied with my English, because I use it almost every day for decades, but I still struggle with English prepositions. Learning the usage of prepositions in another language is a really hard task, and hardly any learner will really get if for 100%, even those who reach level C2, because also some German native speakers use German prepositions wrong sometimes. So, don't worry about it too much.
But I give you some examples for the prepositions that can go with the noun Freude:
Ich habe Freude an schönen Blumen.
I enjoy beautiful flowers.
Here beautiful flowers (schöne Blumen) is the object of your pleasure. Its sheer existence makes you happy.
Ich habe Freude mit meinem neuen Skateboard.
I have joy with my new skateboard.
You use your new skateboard and this makes you happy.
Ich habe Freude mit meinen Freunden.
I have fun with my friends.
You do somethings that you enjoy, and your friends accompany you and have fun themselves.
Ich habe Freude durch Stress.
I have joy from stress.
Freude durch Stress is the title of a guidebook.
And of course there are many different places where you can have fun, and this brings a bunch of additional prepositions you can use:
Ich habe Freude im Haus. Ich habe Freude vor dem Haus. Ich habe Freude hinter dem Haus. Ich habe Freude neben dem Haus. Ich habe Freude auf dem Tisch. Ich habe Freude unter dem Tisch.
I have joy in the house. I have joy in front of the house. I have joy behind the house. I have joy next to the house. I have joy on the table. I have joy under the table.
And you can combine them:
Ich habe Freude an guter Musik mit meiner Frau im Haus vor dem Kamin.
I enjoy good music with my wife in the house in front of the fireplace.