I'm trying to understand the different meanings of bitte, mal, einmal and doch when used in requests or commands. My understanding is that both bitte and mal soften a request, with bitte corresponding to the English "please" and mal serving to make the request more casual, something like "if you don't mind". Meanwhile einmal and doch both strengthen a request, with einmal expressing a certain amount of annoyance and doch expressing insistence or urgency. However, DWDS says mal is a synonym of einmal, which seems to contradict the above. For example, some possible, or a least plausible, translations might be:
- Komm bitte her. -- "Come here, please."
- Komm mal her. -- "Come here, if you don't mind."
- Komm einmal her. -- "Come here for once!"
- Komm doch her. -- "Do come here."
Apparently these words can be used in combination as well, but the meanings in combination are even less clear to me:
- Komm mal bitte her.
- Komm doch mal her.
- Komm doch bitte her.
- Komm bitte einmal her.
- Komm doch einmal her.
- Komm mal einmal her. (This seems to be rare but not impossible.)
Is my understanding of these meanings correct? If so, is DWDS wrong about mal and einmal being synonyms? Are there additional particles or adverbs usable with the imperative that I didn't mention?
This question raises the possibility that there may be regional variations in these meanings, but the answers don't seem to support the idea.