Was kann man alles am "Büdchen" kaufen?
What does "alles" mean here? Is it used as a modal particle?
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No, it's not a modal particle, it means just "all" or "everything".
Was kann man hier alles kaufen? - What all can you buy here?
This is a combination of
Was kann man hier kaufen? - What can you buy here?
Nennen Sie alles was man hier kaufen kann. - Name everything you can buy here.
With the question »Was kann man hier alles kaufen?« you ask for a list of all items that are sold here. (But in fact nobody really expects to get a complete list.)
You use this construction also in these questions:
Sie sind also Gruppenleiter. Was müssen Sie da alles machen?
So you are a group leader. What do you have to do?
Here you want to get a list off all tasks the group leader has to do.
Ich habe erfahren, dass Sie Trompeten herstellen. Was muss man alles machen, bis so eine Trompete fertig ist?
I learned that you make trumpets. What do you have to do until such a trumpet is finished?
Here you want to know all steps that the trumpet maker has to do to build a trumpet.