In English one can "call somebody out for [or on]" something they shouldn't have done, that is, "publicly criticize or fault (someone)" (Merriam-Webster). Leo and Linguee only have translations and examples with other meanings.
Here are a few examples sampled from M-W and the first google result page:
- Merriam-Webster: "The FDA will have to start forcing companies to be transparent and call them out on it when they're not."
- Harvard Business Review: "You’ve Been Called Out for a Microaggression"
- Buzzfeed: "Women Are Talking About The Things They Got Called Out For That Men Do All The Time"
- Medium: "If your friend is called out for transphobia"
This usage may be more common in American English and, as the snippets suggest, seems to be connected to the recently heightened social sensitivities, one potential reason there has not been a great need for a translation; at least, I had trouble finding one. Sure, you can simply translate M-W's explanation and say öffentlich kritisieren. An den Pranger stellen seems too harsh and exists already in English.
So let me be the social avant-garde — down with the microaggressions! — and ask how you would translate it into German.