I am looking for the equivalents of these structure in English, i don't know when to combine these tenses and why.

1.Perfekt + Passiv + Konjunktiv 1

2.Perfekt + Konjunktiv 1

For example the sentence below:

(Danach sei er ganz allein gewesen und habe gehen müssen, als es zu schlimm geworden sei.)

1 Answer 1


The sentence you quote is "reported speech" ("indirekte Rede") and the Konjunktiv (subjunctive mood) is used to indicate that. Most probably someone said (something to the effect of):

Someone: "Danach bin ich ganz allein gewesen und [ich] habe gehen müssen, als es zu schlimm geworden ist".

This is a quite simple case of using the subjunctive mood to indicate reported speech. You basically replace "ich" with "er" because the speaker is not speaking about himself but you are relating what he said and you replace the respective tense with its subjunctive counterpart.

There are more complex rules governing reported speech (for instance, when what is being said is already in subjunctive mood, expressing a succession of events, etc..), but this is quite a simple case of this type of translation.

  • "Danach bin ich ganz alleine gewesen und musste gehen als es zu schlimm wurde" halte ich für wahrscheinlicher als ursprünglichen Satz der direkten Rede. Commented Jun 13, 2022 at 10:49
  • @planetmaker: Your version is possible, true, but i tried to keep it as close to the original to make the translation from direct to reported speech better understandable.
    – bakunin
    Commented Jun 13, 2022 at 10:53

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