Diese vs Die:
If you say "this table" you would speak about this one special table you (mentally) point on. If you say "the table" you speak about the table in a more functional way. It is not important that it is this special table, it is simple some surface you can place objects on.
With "diese" (this) and "die" (the) "Menschheit" it is similar. If you speak about "die Menschheit" you do so in a more general way. It is not important or probable, that there could be others. But with "diese Menschheit" you point on this (special, unique) one and no other. It implies there may be others, but you do not speak about them.
In context of the "Einstellung", "die" is one (not special) of a pool. But "diese Einstellung" points to a special one. In your text it points to the sentence before, judging the ban of robots as silly and not useful.
Concluding I would agree with planetmaker's view: change from "die" to "diese" would affect the sentence more in context of "Einstellung" than of "Menschheit".