Wie hältst du von [etwas]?
is wrong, but
Was hältst du von [etwas]?
is fine when asking for an opinion.
Wie findest du [etwas]?
is fine, too. It depends on the context, which is more appropriate, for example, I would prefer
Wie findest du das Essen?
Was hältst du von dem neuen Kollegen?
Certainly, more expressions are possible.
In addition to the mentioned "wirklich?", which is just the literal translation of "really?", we also have the following phrases:
Echt? (real, genuinely)
Ach was? (not really translatable, indicates a stronger disbelief)
Kann nicht sein! ("can't be")
Ach komm! (roughly "come on!")
Neee! (very colloquial form of nein "no", comically lengthened)
Wenn Du das ...
The excellent DWDS writes:
Song m. ‘Lied mit aktuellem politischem oder folkloristischem Inhalt’,
Übernahme (Ende 18. Jh.) von engl. song ‘Lied, Gesang’ (s. ↗Sang).
Seit Brecht und Weill Bezeichnung für einen balladenhaften,
satirischen, sozialkritischen Sprechgesang, der der Moritat und dem
Bänkelsang nahesteht und in das moderne Drama ...
If you want to express a stronger degree of disbelief than with sogar or auch, you could say:
Joe: Wirklich? Deine Eltern etwa auch?
In any case, the expressed degree of your scepticism depends at least as much on the right intonation as on the choice of words..
It's just the same as in English language. Most of the time a rethorical question is asked like in your examples.
Even would be translated simply as auch [wenn] or (with a bit stronger emphasis) sogar [wenn], or selbst [wenn].
For your examples:
Joe: Kennst Du die Band Rammstein?
Dietrich: Jedermann in Deutschland liebt Rammstein?
This is an extremely broad topic as it had to cover all dialects, which are vastly different from each other. You may want to focus on one single dialect.
Caveat: Information on these is targeted to German speakers usually.
To address the three topics you mentioned:
It's not e which is skipped but the Schwa sound. Schwa is represented by an e following a ...
This is pretty interesting, because the "east-frisian" language almost doesn't exist anymore. I have been in North and Ost Friesland multiple times. So your grantmother was one of the last speaking east-frisians with possible german words / Platt.
Maybe I can support you because I do speak and write the westerlauwers-frisian language (+500.000 speakers). ...
The German word Song is some kind of false friend, because it isn't a literal translation of the english word song. In English a song is, what we call a Lied: a musical composition intended to be sung by the human voice.
In modern German language a Song is a modern (20th / 21st century) song (yeah I know ^^), that is based on american pop-music. Or as the ...
I would take issue with the claim in the other responses that Lied and Song are "interchangeable" and that there is "no difference in usage". It is submitted that there is an apparent difference in usage.
First of all, the Christmas charol Maria durch ein Dornwald ging and Schubert's Der Tod und das Mädchen are most certainly Lieder, not Songs, and a native ...
Das Lied ist the German word for song. However, with growing English influence, more and more (younger) people adopted der Song. There is no difference in usage, they are both 1:1 synonyms.
Lyrics (engl.), Songtext, Liedtext or just Text are all used interchangeably. However, when just saying text, it has to be clear from context what you are talking about, ...
"Das Lied" is the correct German word for a song. But there is a recent (or not so recent) trend to use English words, and you can assume the most would understand what you say when you use "der Song".
About usage, I personally wouldn't use "song", but I guess be groups where it would be more common to use "song". Some people seem to think that using ...
If it is a turn from a positive to a negative (or less positive) state, the most common way would be
Gerade noch wähnt man sich als Sieger, und dann passiert...
Instead of gerade noch you could say eben noch, it wouldn't make any difference.
However, your version starting with da would be understood.
I would not consider "sich wähnen" as too formal for ...
I'd say "[Diesen Tagen] weine ich keine Träne nach" is perfectly fine. There are other possibilities, but this one is, in my opinion, possible even in colloquial speech. Perhaps not among youths today, but certainly among educated adults such as Assistenzärzte.
Other possibilities might be:
[Diese Zeiten] vermisse ich wirklich nicht
[Das] brauche ...
Though expressing the idea »I don't miss« correctly, the rather upper style idiom
einer Sache keine Träne nachweinen
is rarely used in daily speech. A more colloquial way of expressing would use »auf etwas [gern] verzichten können« or »gestohlen bleiben können«.
Auf schläfrige Assistenzarzt-Tage, wie ich sie gehabt habe, kann ich