17

We are probably talking about then handwriting as it is taught to children in school. Before 1970 When I was at school we were taught the "Lateinische Ausgangsschrift" where we had to make strokes on the letters as shown below: Source: Wikipedia This was mainly done from historic reasons. The school handwritings derived from Sütterlin, and the &...


16

Names may contain ae, oe, ue: Baedeker [ɛː] Goethe [øː] Fuest* [uː] Note that adjacent vowels may also belong to different syllables: Michael [ˈmɪça.(ʔ)eːl] Oboe [oˈboː.ə] eventuell [evɛntʊˈɛl] Therefore, no automatic translation from ae, oe, ue to ä, ö, ü is possible. The graphemes ss, ß are used to distinguish the length of the preceding ...


15

ä → ae ö → oe ü → ue Ä → Ae Ö → Oe Ü → Ue ß → ss (or SZ) The SZ is only for words in capitals (and I think for old spelling). Für LaTeX-Nutzer gibt es auch die Umschreibung "a, "o, "u, bzw. "A, "O, "U (bzw. \"a, \"o, \"u, bzw. \"A, \"O, \"U) You are also asking for a kind of official link. Maybe Din 5007 helps a bit. That's a norm for sorting. An "ä" is ...


12

I have also found the following quote from Carnap (bold face by me): Wie soll die Wissenschaft zu intersubjektiv gültigen Aussagen kommen, wenn alle ihre Gegenstände von einem individuellen Subjekt aus konstituiert werden, wenn also alle Aussagen der Wissenschaft im Grunde nur Beziehungen zwischen „meinen“ Erlebnissen zum Gegenstand haben? Da der ...


6

Wikipedia: The umlaut diacritic, consisting of two dots above the vowel [...] Here are the new and old notation of umlauted vowels: Also worth reading: Diaeresis (diacritic): [...] umlaut is a diacritic that consists of two dots ( ¨ ) placed over a letter [...] When it comes to handwriting: In modern handwriting, the umlaut sometimes resembles a ...


4

About umlauts, trema and diaeresis In case of German language, the dots you see in ä, ü and ü are neither called diaeresis nor trema, and they also don't fall into the category of diacritics. Those dots are just called "dots" (»Punkte« in German). Umlauts are distinct letters The letters ä, ö, ü and ß are four additional letters, that German has (...


3

If you are looking for replace the German Umlaute with cleverly respecting the case, use this (opensource, happy to share, all by me) in JavaScript: let umlautMap = { '\u00dc': 'UE', '\u00c4': 'AE', '\u00d6': 'OE', '\u00fc': 'ue', '\u00e4': 'ae', '\u00f6': 'oe', '\u00df': 'ss', } function replaceUmlaute(str) { return str .replace(/[\...


3

For another official link I recommend the ICU project (International Components for Unicode). It basically is a database for all(?) languages/scripts and how to convert, sort and compare words to be used by computer programs. They have a ICU Transform Demonstration which demonstrates the transform rules. For German, you can start with "Latin" as "Source 1" ...


3

I've never heard anyone claim that adding dots to form an umlaut is wrong. There are however various ways to mark an umlaut. Especially in handwriting those dots form little lines or even one contiguous horizontal line, because it's hard to place dots properly when your arm is in movement. You definitly won't raise any eyebrows when using dashes instead of ...


3

Make it as broadly as possible, but be reasonable. The best user experience would be to type in "Gefaskrankheit" and your app knows its "Gefäßkrankheit" despite the input typo. But you are not Google and you only have a limited amount of time and priorities have to be made. You have to ask yourself how many users will write in these non standard ways. ...


3

There is no rule, the Umlaute are vowels on their own. For Germans speakers, an umlaut isn't ¨ but one of ä, ö, ü. The two dots on top of a, u, o originate in the lowercase letter e, which was written on top of those three vowels to indicate a sound shift “including e”. This e was written " in handwriting and eventually replaced by it also in typography. ...


2

ch Das ch wurde als Schreibweise für das griechische χ (chi) benutzt. Jenes wurde aspiriert ausgesprochen ([kʰ]), genauso wie φ (phi) und θ (theta), weswegen man ein h an den Grundbuchstaben c angefügt hat. Dann gab es Lautverschiebung hin zu [x]. Dieser Prozess hätte sicherlich auch diakritisch erfolgen können, aber das war damals vermutlich nicht in Mode. ...


2

Obviously, what everyone would expect is a pure literal search - Return exactly what was searched for. In case you target for something more, you can, however, open up a can of worms: Simple thing is German Umlauts - I would expect you can cover these with a literal search. Transcriptions like "ue", "oe", "ae" are rarely used these days. In case you try to ...


1

Ich habe eine blaue Jacke und einen grauen Mantel. Ich sah zwei Pfauen im Park. Lots of words contain these letter combinations and are bout umlauts.


1

Both should be possible. Although 99% of all German users have German keyboards you must enable the search for users not having a German keyboard. The simple search shall not find "mussen" if you search for "müssen". The advanced search could for instance say "0 matches for müssen, but we have 30 matches with mussen" Same situation as we have with 2., ...


1

I'll be answering your questions from 3 to 1, because I have the feeling that this way the answers can build upon each other. The "ß" is not equivalent to "ss". These are two different letters. However it is allowed to replace "ß" with "ss" if the typeset doesn't contain an appropriate symbol. The same applies technically for the other "Umlaute" ä, ö, ü, ...


1

In addition to Knuts answer: In July 2017 the "Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung" declared, that it is allowed to use the Capital ẞ as well as SS when capitalizing ß. Therefore a capitalized ß results in SS or ẞ. Please pay attention, that a lot of fonts do not contain this letter.


1

I swear by a fantastic little app called DE Key, you can get it for free from this website: http://german.about.com/library/blcomp_dekey1.htm It is a safe app developed by an English speaking programmer who started learning German and, like you got frustrated at not being able to type the German umlauts. It is very simple to use as all that one needs to do ...


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