You may have tripped over the different meanings of “artist” (e.g. English) and “Artist”.
In German, the word for anyone expressing themselves through or creating art is “Künstler“ (as art = Kunst).
An Artist ist an artist using his body, e.g. an acrobat. (So Artist is a subset of Künstler.) A second meaning of Artist, especially in compound nouns, is „a ...
Künstler := Artist, one who uses imagination to create aesthetics.
Artist := Performer, esp. in a circus; Artisan, one who is skilled at a craft.
The passage describes Nietzsche as being both able to create vivid scenes with words (the first sense, Künstler), as well as expressing those well and concisely (the second sense, Artist, like a wordsmith).
I got the explanation, that moin is Frisian and just means good and morning/ evening/ whatever time of day is skipped, wich makes the greeting quite generic . (Moin is mis-interpreted as somewhow related to Morgen by non- Notherners frequently, however.)
From this I would conclude, that it is surely not formal, but neither explicitly informal. It is ...
I think the real cause the problems here is the verb zwingen. In this case it's part of the prepositional verb zwingen + zu, where the zu is followed by an abstract noun or a nominalized verb. Some examples are:
zum Rücktritt zwingen -- "to be forced to resign"
zum Handeln zwingen -- "to be forced to act"
and in your case
zur Aufgabe ...
The term Bergfreiheit very roughly means that an area is free for mining for everybody, that nobody has exclusive rights on the natural ressources.
In Ancient Rome, for example, natural ressources in the ground were "automatically" property of the owner of the land. In later centuries, the ownership of the ressources became separate from the ...
It's complicated, and my intuition led me on a wrong path first.
There are two main points to understand:
1) The case after als in comparisons and appositions
The case of the expression after "als" matches the case of what it is compared to.
Nominativ: Er saß als strebsamer Schüler immer in der ersten Reihe.
Dativ: Ihm als strebsamem Schüler ...
Ja, man kann ein Vergehen begehen.
Ein Satz wie "Ich habe ein Vergehen begangen" heißt dann soviel wie "Ich habe das getan" in Hinblick auf was-immer das konkrete Vergehen war.
Das klingt aber wegen der Doppelung etwas schräg. Deshalb würde man es meist etwas anders formulieren indem man das das Vergehen konkret benennt wie bspw. Betrug ...
Dass das so in der Zeitung steht, finde ich mindestens erstaunlich. Die sprachliche Qualität der "Welt" ist offenbar nicht die Welt.
Es müsste heißen:
Es gebe einen klaren Auftrag, "Dinge in Deutschland zu verändern", alle seien sich des "Ernstes der Lage bewusst".
Der unklare Teil der Aussage ist hier dann alle seien sich des ...
"alle seien sich dem" is just a sequence of four words that you pulled out of middle of this sentence, so this is not meaningful.
Let's look at the components: "Der Ernst der Lage" - "The seriousness of the situation". "Ich bin mir bewusst" - "I am aware that ... " "Er behauptete, ich sei mir bewusst...&...
The German noun "Leiche" means: dead body, corpse, cadaver.
The adjective "alt" means: old.
In German, there is this excessively used feature of compound words, so you can join them together to one word: Altleiche = old corpse. But this specific compound noun is rarely used. It refers to a corpse that has been lying around somewhere for a ...
Your guess is largely correct - the term Bergfreiheit or Bergfrei free is a mining law term.
In dictionary Deutsches Wörterbuch von Jacob Grimm und Wilhelm Grimm you can find:
bergfrei: Feld, das noch nicht gemutet oder auflässig ist.
In the mining sense this is a field that is suspected or abandoned. In contrast, mining freedom ("Bergfreiheit") ...
As guidot♦ already pointed out, it is a word from a dialect or a language from a foreign country bordering Germany.
Therefore, it cannot be considered a formal greeting in business.
If you are in a region where "Moin" is commonly used everywhere ( people regularly use it in conversation), it is certainly appropriate to enter the baker's shop or ...